Sabtu, 01 Agustus 2009

HYDROCARBON PROBLEMS

1. You encounter many organic compounds everyday. Some organic compounds are ethanol (grain alcohol) and acetone (nail polish remover). Please, list other organic compounds which can be found around you in everyday life.

2. Hydrocarbon is one of the organic compound that mainly contains carbon and hydrogen. Which of the following compounds are not classified as hydrocarbons? Alcohol, salt, LPG, vinegar, gasoline, fat, formaline, oil, base, LNG, acid, acetone.

3. Explain the characteristics of carbon atom that can form so many compounds.

4. Please explain the following keywords concerning hydrocarbon groups : aliphatic, aromatic, branched chain, cyclic chain, closed chain, opened chain.

5. Which are the example of organic compounds that have a long chain? Petroleum, methane, glucose, kerosin, sucrose, gasoline, alcohol.

6. Write down the different formulas of hydrocarbon compounds: general formula, molecular formula, empirical formula, structural formula, condensed structural formula, line formula, and skeleton formula for each of the following compounds which have 4 C atoms each. Alkane, alkene, alkadiene, alkyne, and cycloalkane.

7. Hydrocarbon compounds can be classified as a covalent compound. However, the covalent bonds of hydrocarbons are vary. Explain the type of covalent bond in alkane, alkene, alkadiene, alkyne, and cycloalkane.

8. A hydrocarbon in which all carbon atoms are bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms is classified as saturated hydrocarbon. Explain this, and also the other one.

9. Write down the name of each compounds below and give two isomers of each : n-heptane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2-methylhexane, cyclopentane.

10. Write down the formulas of the common name for the following alkyl groups : methyl, ethyl, propil, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, tert-butyl, sec-butyl.

11. A homologous series of alkanes is a series of alkane compounds in which one compound differs from a preceding one by - CH2 -. Explain by giving an example.

12. Determine the number of primary, secondary, tertiary of C atoms in CH3(CH2)3CH(CH3)(CH2)2C(CH3)3.

13. Which compound is likely to have the highest boiling point and which has the lowest one? n-butane, n-hexane, n-decane, 2-methylpropane, 3,3-dimethyloctane

14. Write the molecular formula and condensed structural formula of 2,4-dimethylpentane, then find two isomers.

15. Make a simple scheme for a type of isomerism, then give example of each. All types of isomers that you have learnt.

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