Sabtu, 01 Agustus 2009

PETROLEUM PROBLEMS

1. Natural gas is a mixture of lightweight alkanes. A typical sample of natural gas when it is collected at its source contains methane, ethane, propane, butane and isobutane, and pentane. Some hydrocarbons are removed before the gas is sold. Which hydrocarbons are primarily contain in the commercial natural gas?
2. The propane and butane removed from natural gas are usually liquefied under pressure and sold. What is the name of this liquefied?
3. What are the use of both products above?
4. Crude oil is a complex mixture that is between 50 and 95% hydrocarbon by weight. What is the meaning of crude oil?
5. The first step in refining crude oil involves separating the oil into different hydrocarbon fractions by distillation. Which type of distillation is used in this process? Explain the meaning of it.
6. Make a table to show a typical set of petroleum fractions including the number of carbon atoms.
7. Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds. What are they?
8. Explain about fossil fuel, coal, natural gas, and bio gas.
9. Why petroleum couldn't be renewed?
10. What are the alternative fuels we can used?
11. Give the name of the following petroleum fractions and the use of each fraction.
a. C1 – C5
b. C5 – C10
c. C11 – C14
d. C13 – C17
e. C18 – C25
12. What are bitumen and naphtha? Explain the use of these.
13. Explain the difference of LNG and LPG.
14. What are the use of LNG and LPG?
15. What is the fractional petroleum which used as diesel machine?
16. What is the use of fractional petroleum which contains C atoms about 15 – 19?
17. What are the majority of hydrocarbon compounds in the pure gasoline?
18. Which substance contains in the gasoline that has a high value of combustion?
19. What is isooctane?
20. For a gasoline to function properly in an engine, it should not begin to burn before it is ignited by the spark plug. If it does, it gives engine “knock.” Explain the reason.
21. The anti-knock characteristics of a gasoline are rated by the octane-number scale. Explain about this.
22. Certain substances, such as tetraethyllead, were added to gasoline. What is the propose?
23. What does the octane rating for gasoline tell you?
24. There are a variety of gasoline. Explain please.
25. What are the difference among premix, pertamax, and pertamax plus?
26. What are the substances used for increasing the quality of gasoline?
27. What is TEL? Give the chemical formula and named it.
28. As anti-knocking, TEL is added into gasoline with another substance. What is it? Write the structural formula and named it.
29. Write the chemical equation when a certain gasoline that contain tetraethyllead and 1,2-dibromoethane is burnt.
30. The octane number of pure gasoline is 80%. What is the meaning of this percentage.
31. TEL can cause an air pollution. Explain the reason.
32. What is MTBE?
33. As an anti-knocking, MTBE is better than TEL. Explain the reason.
34. Recently, ethanol is also used as anti-knocking. Which one is better than the other, ethanol or MTBE? Give the reason.
35. Which anti-knocking can be used for pertamax plus?
36. A certain gasoline that contain anti-knocking has an octane number 92. What is the meaning of it?
37. Write the combustion reaction of gasoline.
38. Write the chemical equation when LNG and LPG are burnt in excess oxygen.
39. Propane has heat of combustion 2200 kJ/mol. Burning 22g propane should release … kJ.
40. Carbon dioxide is formed in the complete combustion of a fuel. Carbon monoxide can be formed in the incomplete combustion of a fuel. Write down the chemical equation.
41. If you are already using the proper octane fuel, what will happen?
42. Explain the following statement: a) The engine can be operating at optimum settings; b) A higher octane number should have no effect on the management system.
43. There is a reaction which used to break the long chain of hydrocarbon What is this reaction called?
44. What the different between refining and purifying?
45. Explain about cracking reaction.
46. Give an example of cracking process.
47. The cracking reaction is very important in the petroleum industry. What is the propose of doing this?
48. What are the products of cracking?
49. According to your opinion, is it useful or not? Give the reason.
50. Based on the economical argumentation, give your ideas please.
51. Cracking process can be used to provide gasoline with a high octane number. Give the reason.
52. What do you know about catalytic cracking? Explain please.
53. Cracking process needs a high temperature. Is it correct? Give the reason.
54. Hydrogen could well be a fuel for the future but there are advantages and disadvantages to its use. Explain please.
55. Please mention about greenhouse gases. Explain why those gases called as greenhouse gases.
56. What is the meaning of flammable or explosive?
57. What is the meaning of 'A substance releases energy on burning'? Are all fuels like this? Explain please.
58. What are the difference between combustion and burning?
59. Are all combustion reactions classified as an exothermic reaction?
60. Distinguish endothermic and exothermic processes.

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